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Structural Design Experiences




3 stories apartment (RC. building) is subjected to vertical forces with three dimensional finite element analysis and design. 




Car care structure with slab-mat foundation as sub structure and super structure is steel. 





3 stories apartment (RC. building) is subjected to vertical forces with three dimensional finite element analysis and design. Ground floor is a car park.


A steel structure of promotion sign stand up to 22 meter from existing ground then it is risked to wind effects and overturning of foundation (some pile reactions is tensioned).

3 stories of modern house with spread footing and RC. walls are supported of exterior cantilever stair.

4 stories rectangular building with widely space and main stair as a core of building.

8 stories flat slab building are subjected to vertical and lateral forces (wind in X and Y directions). Column and core wall are mainly resisting parts due to wind force excitations. In column calculation, minimum eccentricities of axial force effects are included.

Office building is included under grond structure therefore lateral soil and uplift pressures are taking into account.

9 stories flat slab building with two wings and connecting them by skywalk-way.




33 stories flat slab building are resisted to wind and seismic loads in X and Y directions. Due to bottom of building is rectangle shape, it need the transfer beam to change the column positions therefore the typical floor is shown.

The Infinity Condominium is destined to become Bangkok’s most luxurious condominium residence. Located at a prestigious address on Narathiwas Road near Sathorn, this freehold 33-storey building has sweeping panoramic city views. Designed by the world-renowned architectural firm, Palmer and Turner, The Infinity Condominium was inspired by the Thai orchid in this building’s unique design and shape. Extending from the central core and frame of the building, The Infinity’s living spaces and rooms act as natural petals of an orchid and graciously open out, offering the owner both privacy and intimate views. From imported Italian marble to solid wooden floors, 3-metre high ceilings and signature Infinity bathrooms, all 123 residences will enjoy the quiet sophistication and understated beauty of its interior finishing. The Infinity was 100% sold out during 2006, and construction has made outstanding progress, with topping off of the structure in March 2007. The Infinity will be ready for occupation by the middle of 2008.

ดิ อินฟิติตี้ คอนโนมิเนียม เป็นโครงการแรกในสังคมอภิสิทธิ์ของ สาทร สแควร์ ตัวอาคารถูกออกแบบมาให้เป็นคอนโนมิเนียมอยู่อาศัยเหนือระดับที่หรูหราที่สุดในกรุงเทพฯ โดยตั้งอยู่บนทำเลที่ดีเยี่ยม บริเวณหัวมุมถนนสาทร ตัดกับถนนนราธิวาส ราชนครินทร์ ซึ่งทำให้อาคารสูง 33 ชั้นนี้ได้รับวิวแบบพาโนรามา สามารถเห็นกรุงเทพฯ ได้โดยรอบทิศ ดิ อินฟินิตี้ฯ ได้รับการออกแบบจากบริษัทสถาปนิกชื่อดังระดับโลก ปาล์มเมอร์ แอนด์ เทิร์นเนอร์ โดยมีแรงบันดาลใจมาจากดอกกล้วยไม้ของไทย ซึ่งมีลักษณะและรูปแบบที่เป็นเอกลักษณ์เฉพาะตัว ห้องพักอาศัยทั้ง 123 ยูนิต มีโครงสร้างเสมือนกลีบดอกกล้วยไม้ ที่ยื่นออกมาจากโครงสร้างหลักของอาคาร ทำให้ผู้พักอาศัยได้สัมผัสกับวิวโดยรอบอย่างใกช้ชิด และเป็นส่วนตัว ทุกห้องได้รับการตกแต่งภายในอย่างเหนือชั้นและมีรสนิยม ด้วยวัสดุชั้นเยี่ยม อาทิ หินอ่อนนำเข้าจากประเทศอิตาลี พื้นไม้ปาร์เก้เกรดพิเศษ เพดานที่สูงถึง 3 เมตร และที่เป็นเอกลักษณ์สำคัญของห้องทุกห้องคือ ห้องน้ำที่ออกแบบให้สามารถสัมผัสบรรยากาศภายนอกได้กว้างถึง 270 องศา โครงการ ดิ อินฟินิตี้ คอนโนมิเนียม ขายหมดภายในระยะเวลาอันรวดเร็วนับจากการเปิดตัว และเริ่มก่อสร้างในปี 2548 การก่อสร้างดำเนินไปอย่างรวดเร็วจนสามารถเริ่มรับรู้รายได้เมื่อต้นปี 2549 และจะสามารถเข้าอยู่อาศัยได้ในปี 2551 ตามกำหนด


A company sign steel structure is loading by wind force in Y direction then maximum story drifts are checked.


Analysis and design of two stories house with prefabricated concrete strutural system.


Analysis and design of two stories town house with prefabricated concrete structural system.




4 stories office building with under ground parking and flat plate floor moreover some stair is free landing type.


Three stories house with underground water tank and this structure consist too many beam because area much more than 1000 sq.m.


2 stories house is included roof structure modeling.


Symmetrically three stories house with a pond in the front end.


17 stories condominium with two stories of basement is checking to resist wind and seismic load, including stabilities checking.


27 stories condominium is checking to resist wind and seismic loads, including stabilities checking.


33 stories condominium with four stories of basement is checking to resist wind and seismic loads, including stabilities checking.


24 stories condominium is checking to resist wind and seismic loads, including stabilities checking.


38 stories condominium is checking to resist wind and seismic loads, including stabilities checking.


Single bored pile with eccentricity is to be check so tie beam is required to resist unbalance moment in footing (F1). Moreover the bottom column is strengthened due to unbalance moment transfer to column.


The modular coordination building is design with prefabricated concrete structural system to resist wind and seismic loads.

Two stories restaurant with longest span about 10 meter by used 800x250 mm. beam size and twin beams are used to carry the glass-steps of stair ST1. The total gross sevice area about 1,200 sq.m.


Re-build of factory flat slab floor with 3 ton/sq.m. of live load. Due to live load is more than 75% of dead load therefore the twenty cases of live load pattern are defined to analyze and design of this flat slab.

In-door footsal court is a long span roof steel structure with space trusses are used as a main rafter and braced them by two dimensional warren trusses as a purlin. In result from architects and engineers therefore space trusses column are adopted instead of reinforced concrete column. Moreover, this project are consisted of two facilities building as reinforced concrete structure and two dog leg stairs.


Three stories home office is designed to resist seismic loads (x & y directions). Although it is located in Nakhon-Prathom province, there is out of disaster zone but by in order of owner's it will be concerned. the key point of this project are widely space about 8 meter in system of reinforced concrete beam-column moment resisting framed structure and single main stair beam (steel beam) with taken as same span.


High class single storey house is a reinforced concrete structure. This house having 3.5 m floor to floor is a more head room furthermore it used incline column is supported top roof slab. In calculation of beam forces and beam design is adopted T & L beam concept that it use some part of cast in place slab as a beam flange due to economical requirements and showing the known how technology of the structural designer.



Nopvichai Kokaew

Master of Structural Engineering (M.Eng)
Asian Institute of Technology (AIT, Thailand)
Structural Engineer
Professional Engineer (PE)


                The author wishes to express his profound gratitude and the most sincere appreciation to his advisor Prof. Worsak Kanok-Nukulchai, for his valuable suggestions, persistent guidance, constructive criticism and friendly discussion throughout this book. The author wishes to mention that without his advisor supervision this book was impossible to accomplish. And also thanks to authors of books and papers that are mentioned in the list of references. The author owes to all teachers a great deal whose magnificent generosity helps to come so far. Profound gratitude is also due to the Royal Thai Government (RTG) for giving the opportunity to study in master degree of structural engineering at Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and providing the scholarship. I would like to express my appreciation my parents who continuously give me best support of all kinds without asking anything in return. Their moral support and love always deserve for remembrance. I would like to thank my great friends for colorful life, which may not be easily found anywhere else. A special thanks is also extended to Mrs. Kittikorn Kokaew who supports and gives will-power to keep walking. And it is also extended this feeling to my son.

            This book would never have been succeeded unless the help and support are received from many people who directly and indirectly contributed to the structuring of this book. Finally, the author would like to dedicate this book to them.



            The simple three-node plate bending element using Moving Least Square (MLS) shape functions is developed to model Mindlin plate problems. Using MLS, the shape functions are no longer tied to the element structure that otherwise limits the global smoothness of the approximate fields. In addition, in the case of extremely thin plates, using MLS allows a perfect match of the fields of the displacement derivative and the normal rotation, thus having an innate capability to satisfy Kirchhoff’s hypothesis exactly. With this field matching strategy, numerical tests demonstrate a complete absence of shear locking. In addition, the method provides exceptionally accurate results for both displacement and stress distributions over a wide range of plate aspect ratios.



Two storey octagon house as a high class group of house in the resort. The structure is reinforced concrete. By the passed experience, this is a smallest structure that having a transfer beam with loaded from point load (CX).

Drawback to the old material that used to construct a house is the wood, but now days, it is so became as a classical trend and having a high construction cost if some wooden type is selected. This house is consisted of reinforced concrete at 1st floor where 2nd floor and roof are rapid growing wooden material. By research, rapid growing wooden can be absolutely used as a contruction material for housing where it has some modification of physical properties by due to the durability requirement. The design formular is adopted as a same tradition of the timber structural design such as AITC code.


This is a two storey add-up house. Since, the existing house has been constructed for 20 years ago then the new house that add-up must be ensured to prevent the differential settlements between it older (end bearing pile) and newer (friction pile). In the large scale building design, sometime a shape of foundation is overlapped therefore it can be combined them. Moreover, if the all foundations are overlapped at all thus it can say and combine them as mat-foundation. The advantages of this type of foundation are giving a structural integrity and result on to reduce the differential settlements but there is leaded to increase a cost of foundation work. Absolutely, to adopt this concept, it can be satisfied the requirement of this project. Remarkable, if a short pile is used in conjunction with isolated footing therefore it may be resulted as much more initial settlement and furthermore, there are no splitting joint (finishing, ceiling and wall are continuously) hence it must be kept to control a minimally movement.


This is a single storey factory building. Not only perimeter beam, column and roofing are address in this structure, but also factory floor is flat slab with drop panel. The structure can be separated between a flat slab and there perimeter structure due to a difference loading intensity. Moreover, the perimeter beam and column are carried such wall finishing and there run way beams as the mechanical equipment (structural steel beam and corbel are supported). The roofing is used a same tradition of two dimensional trusses and purlin. The type of structural support of perimeter structure must be fixed to ensure a structural stability. The project is having a gross service area about 1600 sq.m.


Two storey town houses is a reinforced concrete structure. This structure is used a concept of one span and two overhang therefore it is well known that if the overhang span is adjusted to 0.20L (where the L is the total of over all beam length), it is reduced the bending moment by the positive bending moment in the middle span is nearly to negative bending moment in the overhang span which this concept is adopted from a lifting point of a pre-cast concrete member where the lifting point is equivalent to the supported column. In this situation, the bending moment will be shared and result on a saving of construction cost versus if a simple span is taken.
^                                                          ^



This is a multipurpose two storey reinforced concrete structure where the service area functions are consisted of housing, office and work shop (mini factory). Because, this structure having a multiple usage therefore the owner is allowed to adopt a design live load in generally of 300 ksm at all meanwhile in the work shop region is applied 1000 ksm of live load. Not only the normal permissible minimum eccentricity of column will be calculated but also the direct loading eccentricity transfer to column by a center line of the beam is off line the center of column due to the architectural design concept that showing a side elevation of that beam to offset from the exterior wall surface.

   The Noble Refine Condominium is located on Sukhumvit 24 and it is consisted of 25 storey for usage as a residential building.

The structure has been checked by the criterias as list below (Including Structural Dynamic Analysis):

1.) Stabilities Check

   1.1 Max. swaying displacement is limitted to Hieght / 500

   1.2 Max. story drift is not exceed 0.5%

   1.3 Pile capacity check is to be allowed more than acceptable limit by 5%

2.) Column and Core (Shear) Wall Check

    As the same tradition from many structural designer will be allowed if the capacity ratio not more than 1.05



The Noble Reform Condominium is located on Phaholyothin 7 (@ the corner of Soi Aree is the best site location) and it is consisted of 21 storey for usage as a residential building.

The structure has been checked by the criterias as list below (Including Structural Dynamic Analysis and P-Delta Effect):

1.) Stabilities Check

   1.1 Max. swaying displacement is limitted to Hieght / 500

   1.2 Max. story drift is not exceed 0.5%

   1.3 Pile capacity check is to be allowed more than acceptable limit by 5%

2.) Column and Core (Shear) Wall Check

    As the same tradition from many structural designer will be allowed if the capacity ratio not more than 1.05

*** Three modal frequencies are used to compute the structural responses from the response spectra function of BKK soil classification.


INDEPENDENT STRUCTURE DESIGN CHECK: This building is a hot trend may only one in BKK, very most interest. By the check, for this building, more than once concept model are constructed and applying the difference design codes to cross check of each other coresponding to load cases but independently between designer's & checker's.


 INDEPENDENT STRUCTURE DESIGN CHECK: This building is a perfect matching between the architect & structure requirements and moreover to adopt the มยผ.1302 (2552) standard is a latest up to date of seismic design criteria for our home country (Thailand).

NOBLE PLOENCHIT Condominium Tower A and Tower D

Two Low-Rise Tower are performed structural design check with latest up to date มยผ. 1302 and the key function are followings:

The building must be analyzed both static and dynamic, since, the base shear coefficient from static analysis must be used to as a scale factor for dynamic analysis, thus, the scale factor is shown to the special building characteristic, building by building.

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